2. Distinguishing between children with and         
without cognitive gift levels.

The IM timing and rhythmicity assessment was also
able to significantly differentiate students
who were in gifted and talented programs from non-
participants, students in educable mentally
handicapped programs from those in regular
classrooms and those having received
compensatory speech and language training from
more advanced readers. Significant correlations
ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 between the IM and
participation in such programs suggest the IM has
the ability to distinguish children with cognitive gifts
and deficits from those without such gifts and

3. Motor Coordination and Rhythmic Activities.

The IM produced significant correlations with
independent measures of motor coordination,
accuracy and rhythmicity including instrumental and
dance experience, physical and motor
coordination ratings, measures of music rhythm,
and standardized measures of motor proficiency
such as the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor
proficiency. Significant validity correlations
ranging from 0.31 to 0.75 suggest that students who
have better timing and rhythmicity abilities
also perform better in these capacities than do those
with poorer timing.

A study of adult golfers found as they practiced
improving their timing and rhythmicity, as
measured by the IM, so also did their golfing
accuracy improve.

4. Reliability of IM Assessment.

Reliability estimates for the IM range from 0.85 to
0.97, supporting the capacity of the IM to
consistently measure timing and rhythmicity at a
level of reliability equal to well known standardized
intelligence tests.

It appears timing and rhythmicity is an important
component to planning and sequencing actions
and ideas.

Most high-level attentional, motor and cognitive
capacities depend upon the ability to plan,
sequence and thereby construct patterns. In fact
numerous studies have found that the critical
ability for timing and rhythmicity is associated with
the cerebellum, basal ganglia and pre-frontal cortex.
These areas of the brain have been postulated to
underpin a person’s ability to plan, organize and
execute motor activities and cognitive processes.
Additionally, cerebellar activation is associated with
mental operations such as mental retrieval, verbal
fluency, and the control of attention, all-important
elements to cognitive functioning and a wide variety
of cognitive tasks such as those associated with
higher executive control. Others researchers
suggest the basal ganglia may be a central neural
clock or pacemaker, playing a fundamental role in
the forward planning and the sequencing and timing
of movements. The pre-frontal cortex is the third
area implicated in timing, motor control, behavioral
planning, attention and executive functions. In
addition to a role in timing, evidence suggest the
prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in cognitive
processing and may have a role in representing
abstract rules that guide complex thoughts and
actions. Others have found evidence of the pre-
frontal areas’ executive role in utilizing the semantic
memory of arithmetic facts and in maintaining
optimal levels of executive control. Of interest,
subnormal involvement of prefrontal systems are
found in ADHD children.

These findings strongly support the hypothesis that
timing and rhythmicity related to motor planning and
sequencing play a foundational role in many human
behaviors including motor control, motor planning,
attention, focus and related cognitive processes
associated with academic performance. In addition,
these findings support the validity of timing and
rhythmicity as a construct and the IM as a
technology to assess and systematically practice
and improve functioning in this capacity. Therefore,
these correlation findings combined with
experimental comparisons of IM trained subjects
compared to non-trained subjects supports the use
of the IM as both an assessment of general timing
and rhythmicity and a means of producing potential
improvement in these same abilities. The IM
assessment process may serve as a means of
quickly and cost effectively screening school
children for timing and ryhthmicity challenges
related to difficulties in more complex motor and
cognitive functions.In summary, there has been
evidence from basic neurological research and
applied studies that timing and rhythmicity is an
important central nervous system function related to
a number of attentional, cognitive and motor
skills. Recent studies demonstrate that timing and
rhythmicity is a valid construct and that a new
technology, the Interactive Metronome®, is a valid
and reliable method of measuring timing and

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