More specifically the studies revealed the following.
1. Cognitive Processing and Academic Achievement.
Significant correlations with teacher ratings and various sub tests
of the California Achievement Test (CAT) indicate IM timing relates
to cognitive processes related to vocabulary, reading
comprehension, language mechanics and expression, math
comprehension and applications,science, social studies, spelling
and study skills. Validity coefficients of IM timing and CAT
grade equivalent scores ranged from 0.28 to 0.42 indicating that
students who are better in timing and rhythmicity are relatively
stronger on these academic tasks and visa versa.
2. Distinguishing between children with and without cognitive gift
The IM timing and rhythmicity assessment was also able to
significantly differentiate students who were in gifted and talented
programs from non-participants, students in educable mentally
handicapped programs from those in regular classrooms and
those having received compensatory speech and language
training from more advanced readers. Significant correlations
ranging from 0.11 to 0.17 between the IM and participation in such
programs suggest the IM has the ability to distinguish children
with cognitive gifts and deficits from those without such gifts and
3. Motor Coordination and Rhythmic Activities.
The IM produced significant correlations with independent
measures of motor coordination, accuracy and rhythmicity
including instrumental and dance experience, physical and motor
coordination ratings, measures of music rhythm, and standardized
measures of motor proficiency such as the Bruininks-Oseretsky
Test of Motor proficiency. Significant validity correlations
ranging from 0.31 to 0.75 suggest that students who have better
timing and rhythmicity abilities also perform better in these
capacities than do those with poorer timing.
A study of adult golfers found as they practiced improving their
timing and rhythmicity, as measured by the IM, so also did their
golfing accuracy improve.
4. Reliability of IM Assessment.
Reliability estimates for the IM range from 0.85 to 0.97, supporting
the capacity of the IM to consistently measure timing and
rhythmicity at a level of reliability equal to well known
standardized intelligence tests.
It appears timing and rhythmicity is an important component to
planning and sequencing actions and ideas.
Most high-level attentional, motor and cognitive capacities depend
upon the ability to plan, sequence and thereby construct patterns.
In fact numerous studies have found that the critical ability for
timing and rhythmicity is associated with the cerebellum, basal
ganglia and pre-frontal cortex. These areas of the brain have been
postulated to underpin a person’s ability to plan,organize and
execute motor activities and cognitive processes. Additionally,
cerebellar activation is associated with mental operations such as
mental retrieval, verbal fluency, and the control of attention, all-
important elements to cognitive functioning and a wide variety of
cognitive tasks such as those associated with higher executive
control. Others researchers suggest the basal ganglia may be a
central neural clock or pacemaker, playing a fundamental role in
the forward planning and the sequencing and timing of
movements. The pre-frontal cortex is the third area
implicated in timing, motor control, behavioral planning, attention
and executive functions. In addition to a role in timing, evidence
suggest the prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in cognitive
processing and may have a role in representing abstract rules that
guide complex thoughts and actions. Others have found evidence
of the pre-frontal areas’ executive role in utilizing the semantic
memory of arithmetic facts and in maintaining optimal levels of
executive control. Of interest, subnormal involvement of
prefrontal systems are found in ADHD children.
These findings strongly support the hypothesis that timing and
rhythmicity related to motor planning and sequencing play a
foundational role in many human behaviors including motor
control, motor planning, attention, focus and related cognitive
processes associated with academic performance. In addition,
these findings support the validity of timing and rhythmicity
as a construct and the IM as a technology to assess and
systematically practice and improve functioning in this capacity.
Therefore, these correlation findings combined with experimental
comparisons of IM trained subjects compared to non-trained
subjects supports the use of the IM as both an assessment of
general timing and rhythmicity and a means of producing potential
improvement in these same abilities. The IM assessment process
may serve as a means of quickly and cost effectively screening
school children for timing and ryhthmicity challenges related to
difficulties in more complex motor and cognitive functions.In
summary, there has been evidence from basic neurological
research and applied studies that timing and rhythmicity is an
important central nervous system function related to a number of
attentional, cognitive and motor skills. Recent studies
demonstrate that timing and rhythmicity is a valid construct and
that a new technology, the Interactive Metronome®, is a valid and
reliable method of measuring timing and rhythmicity.
(End of copy from Interactive Metronome® web site.)
IM ENHANCES ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE