IM Academic Studies (Presented at the Learning & the Brain
Conference at Harvard in 2005, Appending Publication)
Click here to read the Brief of: "The Impact of Synchronized
Metronome Tapping Treatments on School Achievement:  A Report
of Two Preliminary Investigations."

Imaging/MRI in Defining Auditory-Motor Processing Network Study
Auditory-motor processing is complex, working through multipal
neuronetworks.  This present study provides a preliminary analysis
of possible structures involved, specifically: Cingulate Gyrus,
Temporal Gyrus, Superior Frontal Gyrus.  Of note is the significance
of bilateral activation for these tasks.  Repetitive auditory-motor
training, specifically IM holds promise for neuroplasticity of higher
and lower brain centers.

St. Thomas Aquinas Study
The staff of Interactive Metronome, Inc. trained 29 student/athletes
from St. Thomas Aquinas High School, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. IM
training was conducted on a group basis with 15-17 student-athletes
working in each of two groups in a computer classroom. Training
occurred over a span of 15 days. Timing and focus results produced
and measured by the Interactive Metronome®. Mental processing
results measured by a nationally standardized test for academic
achievement. Functional improvements and execution results
provided by the student-athletes themselves through a written
survey conducted post IM training.

ADHD Study
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 9 to 12-year-old boys
diagnosed with ADHD found those undergoing IM treatment showed
significant patterns of improvement in attention, coordination,
motor control, language processing, reading and control of
aggression/impulsivity. This study was published in the American
Journal of Occupational Therapy, March 2001.

Motor Control Study
In a study by P.M. Stemmer, “Improving Student Motor Integration
by use of an Interactive Metronome,” presented at the 1996 Annual
Meeting of the American Educational Association in Chicago, IL, a
comparison of a group of special education students who received
treatment with IM to a control group showed that the IM group
improved significantly in both motor control and motor coordination
as evaluated by independent measures (Bruininks-Oseretsky and
SIPT Motor Accuracy Test). Parents of the IM group members also
reported marked improvement in their children's ability to attend to
tasks, read, and write as well as in their general behavior.

Timing in Child Development Study
A correlation study of 585 children in a public school district found
significant correlations between IM score and academic
performance in reading, mathematics, language, science, social
studies, and study skills. The researchers concluded that timing
and rhythmicity play a foundational role in the cognitive processes
underlying performance in these academic areas. The results were
published by the High/Scope Foundation, a non-profit educational
research institution.

Academic Fluency Study
More than 1500 middle and high school students were pre-tested
using selected subtests of the Woodcock Johnson III (WJ III)
standardized test. The students then received 12 one-hour sessions
of IM. When the IM treatment was complete, the students were post-
tested using the same subtests of the WJ III. Analysis of the
aggregate results showed statistically significant increases in
students grade equivalent (GE) performances in the following areas:

• Reading Fluency increased by 2.25 (GE)
• Math Fluency increased by 1.7 (GE)

High School Academic Study
The largest public school in Florida conducted a controlled study of
360 ninth and tenth grade students to examine the correlation
between improvements in students' timing and academic
achievement. Post-test results showed the IM group scored
significantly higher in broad reading and reading fluency as
compared to the Control Group. Those students' math calculation
skills, math fluency, and attention also improved significantly.

Title I Study
This study involved fourth and fifth grade students identified as
Title I eligible and scoring in the lowest three stanines on the
reading subtest of Stanford Achievement Test Edition Nine. Forty of
the students participated in 12 sessions of IM training. Forty other
students formed the Control Group and were matched to Research
Group students on the basis of School Ability Index scores from the
Otis Lennon School Ability Test.

* The Research and Control Groups were both pre-and post-tested
with the Woodcock Johnson III reading and math fluency subtests.
The Research (IM) Group achieved significantly higher post-test
reading fluency performance (1.67 grade equivalency higher) than
did the Control Group.
* The STAR reading assessment was also administered pre-and
post-training. The results of the IM-treated students demonstrated
increases averaging one to two grade levels.
* The students' pre and post-training Stanford Achievement Test
Ability-Achievement Comparison (AAC) range standings were also
reviewed. As a group, the students in the IM Group increased their
AAC range standing from Low (achievement is below ability) to
Middle (achievement is at ability level) or High (achievement is
above expectations). The Control Group, on the other hand, either
remained at the Low or Middle range or decreased from Middle to
Low. *Title I is the largest federal aid program for elementary and
secondary schools.
Parkinson's Pilot Study (Full Article pending publication)
This pilot study examined the effect of computer-based motor
training activities upon the severity of signs and symptoms in
patients with mild or moderate Parkinson’s disease. Methods:
Thirty-six subjects were randomly assigned to train using the
Interactive Metronome (IM) device, which provides training for
rhythmicity and timing, or to a control regimen consisting of motor
activities directed by a rhythm or a computer (e.g., clapping or
exercising to music or to a metronome tone or playing computer
games). The severity of parkinsonism was compared before and
after 20 hour-long training sessions as measured by the Unified
Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part 3 and, as secondary
measures, the UPDRS part 2, the Hoehn and Yahr stage, a timed
finger tapping test, and the timed “Up & Go” test. Results: Twelve
subjects completed training with the IM device and nine completed
the control regimen.

In this controlled pilot study, computer-directed movement training,
both with the IM device and with the control training activities, was
found to improve the motor signs of parkinsonism, both on clinical
examination (UPDRS part 3) and in objective timed tests (finger
tapping and the timed “Up & Go” test). This is the first direct
demonstration that these types of exercises can improve
parkinsonism, lending support for the phrase “use it or lose it” that
is often quoted to patients. Non-pharmacologic interventions such
as these are highly attractive to patients, and they help to foster a
sense of higher personal control over the disease. The use of such
interventions is generally embraced by patients with Parkinson’s